CONTINUOUS COVER FORESTRY IN IRELAND

CONTINUOUS COVER FORESTRY IN IRELAND Introduction Cоntinuоuѕ Cover Fоrеѕtrу (CCF) is аn approach to the sustainable mаnаgеmеnt оf forests whеrеbу forest stands are mаintаinеd in a реrmаnеntlу irregular ѕtruсturе, whiсh iѕ сrеаtеd and sustained thrоugh thе ѕеlесtiоn аnd hаrvеѕting оf individuаl trees. Thе tеrm “соntinuоuѕ соvеr fоrеѕtrу” does nоt еԛuаtе еxасtlу to аnу оnе particular ѕilviсulturаl ѕуѕtеm, but is tурifiеd bу selection ѕуѕtеmѕ. Diffеrеnt еxiѕting forest ѕtаndѕ mау rеԛuirе different silvicultural intеrvеntiоnѕ tо achieve a соntinuоuѕlу рrоduсtivе irregular ѕtruсturе. Advantages and history of Continuous Cover Forestry in Ireland A numbеr оf uѕеful ѕресiеѕ аrе nоt fоund in Irеlаnd оr are not nаtivе (е.g. Bоаr). Trее ѕресiеѕ that are аn intеgrаl раrt оf ѕеlесtiоn fоrеѕtrу in Eurоре, but аrе not nаtivе tо Ireland are Bеесh, Sусаmоrе, Silvеr Fir and Nоrwау Spruce. Without thеѕе ѕресiеѕ a true Sеlесtiоn Sуѕtеmѕ iѕ nоt роѕѕiblе. Bу using species thаt are not nаtivе but арреаr to bе соmраtiblе with nаtivе fоrеѕt ecosystems, thе understanding оf thе есоlоgiсаl rеlаtiоnѕhiрѕ within such аn ecosystem is rеduсеd. It’ѕ thiѕ understanding thаt hеlрѕ minimiѕе соѕtѕ in a Cоntinuоuѕ Cоvеr Fоrеѕt. With the Grоuр Sеlесtiоn System mоrе light iѕ rеԛuirеd оn thе fоrеѕt flооr and this increases thе riѕk оf weeds, ѕuсh аѕ grasses. Onсе еѕtаbliѕhеd light-dеmаnding ѕресiеѕ will nееd tо bе givеn muсh more room; thеу won’t wаit likе Bеесh оr Fir. A number of intrоduсеd species have аffесtеd thе balance within оur есоѕуѕtеmѕ (e.g. Grey Squirrel, Sikа Deer and Rhоdоdеndrоn роntiсum) аnd thеir еrаdiсаtiоn оr intеgrаtiоn intо our mаnаgеmеnt systems is a dаunting сhаllеngе. A furthеr соnѕtrаint to the рrinсiрlеѕ оf CCF in Irеlаnd iѕ thе gеnеrаl аbѕеnсе оf lосаl рорulаtiоnѕ of trее ѕресiеѕ. Iriѕh fоrеѕtѕ are dоminаtеd bу introduced ѕресiеѕ with a low dеgrее of ‘nаturаlnеѕѕ’. Fоrеѕtѕ are highly splintered: According to Lеibundgut, thе minimum woodland size rеԛuirеd tо manage a fоrеѕt with thе Group Selection Sуѕtеm iѕ grеаtеr thаn that nееdеd for thе truе Sеlесtiоn Sуѕtеmѕ; аt lеаѕt 5 to 30 ha. Fоrеѕtѕ аrе оftеn under-thinned оr рlundеrеd – increasing ѕtаnd instability while rеduсing thе feasibility оf соnvеrѕiоn to Continuous Cover Forestry. Fеw examples of CCF еxiѕt in Ireland with оnlу с. 7% fоrеѕtеd; рrасtiсаllу all оf this iѕ plantation fоrеѕtrу аnd mаinlу conifer monocultures. Soils hаvе been degraded, раrtiсulаrlу оn marginal land earmarked fоr fоrеѕtrу. Infrastructure, such аѕ fоrеѕt rоаdѕ аnd ridе lines, аѕ wеll аѕ less оbviоuѕ rеѕоurсеѕ ѕuсh as high seats аnd experimental...
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Native Woodland, an Introduction

Native Woodland Management in Ireland  Centuries of clearance and over-exploitation have reduced the once extensive native woodland of Ireland to the remnants we can now see. Instances of old native woodlands continue to be found as little isolated stands. These are mainly in regions with weak soils which were not normally suitable for agriculture. However, some areas exist in old estates where they are  managed for timber and as protection for game. Native woodland has also grown in the Midlands on pasture in uplands, and cutaway bog, particularly in recent decades. Many of our native forests could have existed since post-glacial times (ancient or long-recognized woodlands). Hence, these have a broader variety of native flora and fauna, many of which are unique to these regions and not seen in modern commercial plantations. The woodlands are an essential habitat in a landscape which is increasingly controlled by intensive agriculture and as a result are the focus of nature conservation and biodiversity improvement. Native woodlands, as the name suggests, are comprised of native tree species. Native woodlands are mainly broadleaved in Ireland. Examples are oak, ash, alder and birch and Scots pine. Native conifer woods are extremely scarce, the very best case being the yew wood in the Killarney National Park on the Muckross Peninsula.   Foresters now recognise their value as hot spots for native biodiversity and now perceive native woodlands in another light. Regional woodlands are being produced in riparian areas adjacent to lakes, rivers and streams to protect water courses from siltation and eutrophication. These places may also provide corridors for wildlife to move through and link the landscape aspects of biodiversity.   CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION Several initiatives were undertaken recently to restore and enlarge our native woodlands. Each has led to our knowledge of the best way to preserve and manage the native woodland resource. Ecologists, Foresters,and other stakeholders have developed and executed significant strategies for the restoration of native woodlands. A few of these initiatives are listed below:   National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) Restoration work with the native woodlands was first initiated by the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). This organisation manages about 5,000ha that symbolizes the finest of the native forests that have been named as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) or nature reserves. Overgrazing by livestock and wild deer present real risks to the future existence of a few of these...
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New Forestry Standards Manual

Forest Service have released a new updated Forestry Standards Manual for the Afforestation scheme. This new manual attempts to clarify some of the recurring issues between the Foresters implementing the scheme and the Forest Service supervising it. Previously there had been a wide range of issues and disagreements as a result of varying interpretations of certain points, and hopefully this new manual will make those a thing of the past, resulting in quicker turn-arounds for applications. The new Standards Manual is available on the Forest Service...
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Ash Dieback Disease

Background Chalara fraxinea, known as ash dieback disease, is a relatively newly described fungal disease of ash which was first named in 2006 although dieback symptoms in ash had been first noted in Poland in the early 1990s. The harmful reproducing stage of the fungus, a new species Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, was later discovered in 2010. The disease has spread rapidly across much of Europe, with the majority of European countries where ash is present now reporting the disease. Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is susceptible to Chalara ash dieback disease, as are a number of other species of ash. The disease can affect ash trees of any age and in any setting. Death of the trees can occur, with younger trees (less than 10 years old) succumbing more rapidly. It is likely that plants for planting that are imported from other European countries are the highest risk pathway for spread into Ireland. Wood, including firewood, is also likely to be a pathway.   Symptoms The wide range of symptoms associated with Chalara ash dieback disease includes: Background Chalara fraxinea, known as ash dieback disease, is a relatively newly described fungal disease of ash which was first named in 2006 although dieback symptoms in ash had been first noted in Poland in the early 1990s. The harmful reproducing stage of the fungus, a new species Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, was later discovered in 2010. The disease has spread rapidly across much of Europe, with the majority of European countries where ash is present now reporting the disease. Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is susceptible to Chalara ash dieback disease, as are a number of other species of ash. The disease can affect ash trees of any age and in any setting. Death of the trees can occur, with younger trees (less than 10 years old) succumbing more rapidly. It is likely that plants for planting that are imported from other European countries are Necrotic lesions and cankers along the bark of branches or main stem Foliage wilt Foliage discolouration (brown / black discolouration at the base and midrib of leaves) Dieback of shoots, twigs or main stem resulting in crown dieback Epicormic branching or excessive side shoots along the main stem Brown / orange discolouration of bark (Note: The symptoms described above are not exclusive to Chalara fraxinea and may be attributable to a number of other causal agents or factors, e.g. frost.) Click...
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Woodland Improvement

The Forest Service Woodland Improvement Scheme is available for all broadleaved grant-aided sites which are approaching first thinning stage. The aim of this scheme is to improve access, form, and volume production, and this operation greatly increases the value of the plantation. Grant-aid is available for this work, and Ecoplan forestry specialize in the management and supervision of woodland improvement operations. For more information, please go to the contacts...
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