EcoForestry

Ecoforestry is a term used to describe a forest management practice which emphasises sustainability rather than pure financial returns. The focus is on the entire forest ecosystem, and here are its main principles: Principles of Eco Forestry Sustainability is the most important factor in Ecoforestry, it must be the first consideration in any planned operation. By doing this, one ensures the protection of such things as rare species, sites of native cultural significance, riparian zones, etc. 2. Riparian zones should not be touched whenever possible. This protects the water quality. Water quality is protected by not altering the drainage pattern of the zones. No tree removal should take place in the most sensitive areas. 3. The composition and structures should be upheld so that forests may fully function. Encouraging natural regeneration and retaining senescent trees maintains the age and vertical diversity of the ecosystem. 4. When removing trees, insist on low-impact harvesting methods. This minimises disturbance and avoids soil compaction. 5. Prohibit clear-felling. Clear-felling  is not ecologically correct, and in many cases is not financially the best option anyway. Adhere to continuous cover management systems to ensure biodiversity benefits and long-term sustainability. 6. Carefully select trees as candidates for removal by considering your long-term goals. Retained stems should be chosen based on their native provenance, habitat value, seed production or even aesthetics. Consider how these trees will benefit the ecosystem into the future, and plan around that. 7. Allow forests to regenerate naturally from existing seed-trees. This removes the need for expensive planting and allows the forest to develop naturally with species that are ideally suited to the site and local conditions. 8. Limited or preferably no pesticide use. The forest requires disease, insects, and competition, they are essential parts of a fully functioning forest. 9. Retain deadwood and fallen branches wherever possible, these provide additional habitat and restore soil quality over time. 10. Maintain the aesthetics, beauty and unique qualities of the woodland. 11. Always look at the forest as a whole, from the soil and humus underfoot to the highest canopy. 12. Rely more on people and niche markets. Use alternate thinking to depend less on the destruction or harvesting from the forests. 13. Be enlightened. Don’t allow ignorance to limit what you can do, recognize that the ecosystem needs sensitive management. If the forest is not preserved, then it cannot be harvested...
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Ash Dieback Disease

Background Chalara fraxinea, known as ash dieback disease, is a relatively newly described fungal disease of ash which was first named in 2006 although dieback symptoms in ash had been first noted in Poland in the early 1990s. The harmful reproducing stage of the fungus, a new species Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, was later discovered in 2010. The disease has spread rapidly across much of Europe, with the majority of European countries where ash is present now reporting the disease. Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is susceptible to Chalara ash dieback disease, as are a number of other species of ash. The disease can affect ash trees of any age and in any setting. Death of the trees can occur, with younger trees (less than 10 years old) succumbing more rapidly. It is likely that plants for planting that are imported from other European countries are the highest risk pathway for spread into Ireland. Wood, including firewood, is also likely to be a pathway.   Symptoms The wide range of symptoms associated with Chalara ash dieback disease includes: Background Chalara fraxinea, known as ash dieback disease, is a relatively newly described fungal disease of ash which was first named in 2006 although dieback symptoms in ash had been first noted in Poland in the early 1990s. The harmful reproducing stage of the fungus, a new species Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, was later discovered in 2010. The disease has spread rapidly across much of Europe, with the majority of European countries where ash is present now reporting the disease. Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is susceptible to Chalara ash dieback disease, as are a number of other species of ash. The disease can affect ash trees of any age and in any setting. Death of the trees can occur, with younger trees (less than 10 years old) succumbing more rapidly. It is likely that plants for planting that are imported from other European countries are Necrotic lesions and cankers along the bark of branches or main stem Foliage wilt Foliage discolouration (brown / black discolouration at the base and midrib of leaves) Dieback of shoots, twigs or main stem resulting in crown dieback Epicormic branching or excessive side shoots along the main stem Brown / orange discolouration of bark (Note: The symptoms described above are not exclusive to Chalara fraxinea and may be attributable to a number of other causal agents or factors, e.g. frost.) Click...
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